Main Toilet Segments
The Water Tank – also known as the cistern, which houses the flushing mechanism and stores water.
Toilet Flushing Mechanism – the stop valve and the flush valve, located inside the cistern
Toilet Bowl – the bottom part of the toilet which always contains little water and which collects waste collects. The toilet seat cover anchors on this bowl.
Water supply line
The parts constitutes the basic toilet plumbing system.
Cistern – comes in different shapes, sizes and can either have a flushing button at the top or a side handle for flushing. A cistern can come separate from the bowl, connected by a pipe or can come as a single unit together with the bowl.
Stop Valve: This controls the passage of water from the water supply line into the cistern. As the water fills up the cistern, the stop valve gradually narrows the opening for water until it finally blocks water to pass through completely. This happens when the water level has reached the desired level. It is possible to adjust the desired amount of water the tank should allow before the water is completely blocked.
The water supply can either come from the side (side inlet) or bottom (bottom inlet). Older toilets made use of a float ball as an indicator that the toilet is full (on horizontal position) or empty (near vertical position). The modern toilets uses a float cup which rises when the water level rises, or falls as the water level drops. The ultimate result is the same, stop water when full, refill when empty.
Flapper: It releases water at the initiation of the trip lever. As you press the button, suction is created which causes release of water into the bowl.
Overflow Tube: Usually, if the stop valve is faulty or for some reason water continues to fill in the tank, the overflow tube let the excess water out and into the bowl. This stops the toilet water running over. If the tank gets too full, the extra water drains into this bowl
Connecting Parts: Toilet Parts and Their Functions
Water supply lines – these days a flexible connector is commonly in use. The pipes carries water to the toilet, and usually attaches to an angle valve for shut off during repairs and maintenance
Drain pipe – also known as the pan connector, is the passage way for waste water from the bowl into the drainage pipes. Flexible pan connectors are also available for use especially on repairs, as the former will not be practical to install on an already built up house.